Atrial fibrillation (afib) is characterized by disorganized atrial activity of varying amplitude and frequency ranging from 350 to 600 beats per minute. The large number of atrial impulses penetrating the atrioventricular (AV) node makes it refractory to subsequent impulses, and as a consequence produces a slower ventricular response. On the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) this is characterized as an irregularly irregular rhythm without discrete p wave. Atrial activation is manifested by an undulating baseline.
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